By Joseph M. Bocheński
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Extra resources for Ancient Formal Logic
An instance of the zeds Ev is “healthy”: a thing is called “healthy” because it possesses health, or produces it, or is its symptom or possible subject 55. The situation seems, consequently, to be this: the word a is called “n& 2v ambiguous” in respect of the things x and y and of the attributes y and y, if and only if yx. yy and one of the above relations holds between y and y, and a means both a, in x and y in y. We do not f h d any so explicit explanation of analogically ambiguous words ; Aristotle writes, however, often on analogy, 58 and some of those texts seem to refer to such words.
10. 46. 1 prim. of double neg. (0) sentences N(XeP) 3 N(PeS)27 N(#aP( 3 N(PiS)2* N(8iP) 3 N(Pi8)29 O ( f J e P )3 O ( P e J 930 ()(#aP)3 ()(Pi#)31 ()(XiP) 3 ()(Pi#). 41-43 meet a serious difficulty if the structure 10. 21 ff. is presupposed. z4 An. Pr. A 13, 32 a 37f. - 85 ib. 38f. - 26 ib. 40. - 27 An. Pr. A 3, 25 a 298. - An. Pr.
41 is false. We then have rSeP1 and ‘Pis’. If so, there is at least one individual, say g such that g E P . g E S ; by commutation (8. 33) we get g E S . g E P and if so, we also have ‘Sip1 which (by 9. e. the negation of ‘SeP1 which was supposed. The law p . p 3 q l , but Aristotle does not state supposed is r p q 3 it. The rest is also less explicit than in our formulation, however all steps described above must have been more or less conscious. - - * 9. 42. SaP 3 P i s 2o Proof: if not 9. 42, then we have ‘Sap1 and r- PiS1; this gives (by 9.
Ancient Formal Logic by Joseph M. Bocheński