By M. Glasius
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Extra resources for A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: Project, Principles, Practicalities (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics)
Wars, and more particularly ‘new wars’ that involve violations of the rights of civilians, have typically had a particularly detrimental impact on women’s rights. But the gender perspective is not just a focus on women: men, especially young men, are also more subject to violence while at the same time being encouraged or even coerced to use violence. On the positive side, women are also often the civil society actors most likely to get organized, either against the violence or simply to get certain basic services running again.
Since the military, police and judiciary are the ultimate agents of the organized institutions of state force, it is essential to make them efﬁcient and accountable. Security is important for governance, and inappropriate security structures can contribute to weak governance and intensiﬁed violent conﬂicts (OECD/DAC 2004). Security-sector reform tries to improve the situation through institutional reforms. Democratic, civilian control over security forces is crucial for the provision of security in the interests of the population.
First, the monopoly of violence should be exercised according to the principle of subsidiarity; that is, a bottom-up approach in which the lowest level should be the starting point and only if the lower level is not capable of, or cannot be tasked with, exercising a monopoly of force should the next-highest level be entrusted with this mission. This approach has been adopted, for example, in many federal systems with the component states (or even local communities) executing police functions, and the central government (the nation-state) becoming involved only if the task goes beyond the local level or if the instruments of legitimized organized violence prove to be incompetent or inadequate.
A Human Security Doctrine for Europe: Project, Principles, Practicalities (Routledge Advances in International Relations and Global Politics) by M. Glasius